To nurture the skills of resilience is key to providing young people with the ability to cope with stress, adversity, failure and challenges. Resilience is evident when young people have a greater ability to “bounce back” when faced with difficulties and achieve positive outcomes.
Resilience enables an individual to identify when a friendship or relationship feels unsafe, threatening or uncomfortable and provides the confidence and self-belief to persist in raising and reporting a concern.
Schools play a pivotal role in promoting safe, healthy relationships on and offline. Rather than being see in isolation, embedding RSE across the whole school and curriculum avoids ‘forced’ conversations which can disengage and embarrass. Getting this right means not only a happier school community who are better able to get on together, but a reduction in risk taking behaviours, including early sexual initiation and negative outcomes such as unwanted pregnancies or sexually transmitted infections.
Relationships and Sex Education (RSE) should always be delivered as part of a planned, developmental RSHE education programme.
In any school that provides RSE, parents have the right to withdraw pupils from sex education but not from Relationships or Health Education. Parents have the right to request that their child be withdrawn from some or all of sex education delivered as part of statutory RSE.
Today’s children and young people are growing up in an increasingly complex world and living their lives seamlessly on and offline. This presents many positive and exciting opportunities, but also challenges and risks. In this environment, children and young people need to know how to be safe and healthy, and how to manage their academic, personal and social lives in a positive way.
Teaching the fundamental building blocks and characteristics of positive relationships, with particular reference to friendships, family relationships, and relationships with other peers and adults has been advocated.
Develop and implement an effective policy. To support staff to deliver lesson plans in line with guidance the NSPCC has worked with the PSHE Association to create lesson plans for children aged 10-16 (key stages 2-4) on personal safety and healthy relationships.
The age-appropriate lessons cover subjects such as:
transition to secondary school
online safety and online friendships
sharing sexual images.There is a guide for teachers on creating a safe learning environment for the lessons, what to do if they receive a disclosure and where to signpost young people for help. The guide also includes a template letter to parents to inform them about the content and purpose of the lessons –
download here The lessons have been quality assured by the PSHE Association and they link with the PSHE Association Programme of Study. Although they refer to statutory and non-statutory guidance for schools in England, the contents are equally relevant and suitable for use in all parts of the UK.
Guidance notes for primary teachers on teaching Relationships Education (February 2019)
The focus in primary school should be on teaching the fundamental building blocks and characteristics of positive relationships, with particular reference to friendships, family relationships, and relationships with other children and with adults.
This starts with pupils being taught about what a relationship is, what friendship is, what family means and who the people are who can support them. From the beginning of primary school, building on early education, pupils should be taught how to take turns, how to treat each other with kindness, consideration and respect, the importance of honesty and truthfulness, permission seeking and giving, and the concept of personal privacy. Establishing personal space and boundaries, showing respect and understanding the differences between appropriate and inappropriate or unsafe physical, and other, contact – these are the forerunners of teaching about consent, which takes place at secondary.
Respect for others should be taught in an age-appropriate way, in terms of understanding one’s own and others’ boundaries in play, in negotiations about space, toys, books, resources and so on.
From the beginning, teachers should talk explicitly about the features of healthy friendships, family relationships and other relationships which young children are likely to encounter. Drawing attention to these in a range of contexts should enable pupils to form a strong early understanding of the features of relationships that are likely to lead to happiness and security. This will also help them to recognise any less positive relationships when they encounter them.
The principles of positive relationships also apply online especially as, by the end of primary school, many children will already be using the internet. When teaching relationships content, teachers should address online safety and appropriate behaviour in a way that is relevant to pupils’ lives. Teachers should include content on how information and data is shared and used in all contexts, including online; for example, sharing pictures, understanding that many websites are businesses and how sites may use information provided by users in ways they might not expect.
Teaching about families requires sensitive and well-judged teaching based on knowledge of pupils and their circumstances. Families of many forms provide a nurturing environment for children. (Families can include for example, single parent families, LGBT parents, families headed by grandparents, adoptive parents, foster parents/carers amongst other structures.) Care needs to be taken to ensure that there is no stigmatisation of children based on their home circumstances and needs, to reflect sensitively that some children may have a different structure of support around them; e.g. looked after children or young carers.
A growing ability to form strong and positive relationships with others depends on the deliberate cultivation of character traits and positive personal attributes, (sometimes referred to as ‘virtues’) in the individual. In a school wide context which encourages the development and practice of resilience and other attributes, this includes character traits such as helping pupils to believe they can achieve, persevere with tasks, work towards long-term rewards and continue despite setbacks. Alongside understanding the importance of self-respect and self-worth, pupils should develop personal attributes including honesty, integrity, courage, humility, kindness, generosity, trustworthiness and a sense of justice. This can be achieved in a variety of ways including by providing planned opportunities for young people to undertake social action, active citizenship and voluntary service to others locally or more widely.
Relationships Education also creates an opportunity to enable pupils to be taught about positive emotional and mental wellbeing, including how friendships can support mental wellbeing.
Through Relationships Education (and RSE), schools should teach pupils the knowledge they need to recognise and to report abuse, including emotional, physical and sexual abuse. In primary schools, this can be delivered by focusing on boundaries and privacy, ensuring young people understand that they have rights over their own bodies. This should also include understanding boundaries in friendships with peers and also in families and with others, in all contexts, including online. Pupils should know how to report concerns and seek advice when they suspect or know that something is wrong. At all stages it will be important to balance teaching children about making sensible decisions to stay safe (including online) whilst being clear it is never the fault of a child who is abused and why victim blaming is always wrong. These subjects complement Health Education and as part of a comprehensive programme and whole school approach, this knowledge can support safeguarding of children.
Primary-age pupils will often ask their teachers or other adults questions pertaining to sex or sexuality which go beyond what is set out for Relationships Education. The school’s policy should cover how the school handles such questions. Given ease of access to the internet, children whose questions go unanswered may turn to inappropriate sources of information.
Meeting these objectives will require a graduated, age-appropriate programme of Relationships Education. Children of the same age may be developmentally at different stages, leading to differing types of questions or behaviours. Teaching methods should take account of these differences (including when they are due to specific special educational needs or disabilities) and the potential for discussion on a one-to-one basis or in small groups. Schools should consider what is appropriate and inappropriate in a whole-class setting, as teachers may require support and training in answering questions that are better not dealt with in front of a whole class.
The Relationships Education, RSE, and Health Education (England) Regulations 2019 have made Relationships Education compulsory in all primary schools. Sex education is not compulsory in primary schools and the new statutory guidance therefore focuses on teaching about relationships and health, including puberty.
The national curriculum for science includes subject content in related areas, such as the main external body parts, the human body as it grows from birth to old age (including puberty) and reproduction in some plants and animals. It will be for primary schools to determine whether they need to cover any additional content on sex education to meet the needs of their pupils. Many primary schools already choose to teach some aspects of sex education and will continue to do so, although it is not a requirement.
It is important that the transition phase before moving to secondary school supports pupils’ ongoing emotional and physical development effectively. The recommendation is therefore that all primary schools should have a sex education programme tailored to the age and the physical and emotional maturity of the pupils. It should ensure that both boys and girls are prepared for the changes that adolescence brings and – drawing on knowledge of the human life cycle set out in the national curriculum for science – how a baby is conceived and born. As well as consulting parents more generally about the school’s overall policy, primary schools should consult parents before the final year of primary school about the detailed content of what will be taught. This process should include offering parents support in talking to their children about sex education and how to link this with what is being taught in school. Meeting these objectives will require a graduated, age-appropriate programme of sex education. Teaching needs to take account of the developmental differences of children.
Where a maintained primary school chooses to teach aspects of sex education (which go beyond the national curriculum for science), the school must set this out in their policy and all schools should consult with parents on what is to be covered. Primary schools that choose to teach sex education must allow parents a right to withdraw their children. Unlike sex education in RSE at secondary, in primary schools, head teachers must comply with a parent’s wish to withdraw their child from sex education beyond the national curriculum for science. Schools must also ensure that their teaching and materials are appropriate having regard to the age and religious backgrounds of their pupils. Schools will also want to recognise the significance of other factors, such as any special educational needs or disabilities of their pupils.
The focus in primary school should be on teaching the fundamental building blocks and characteristics of positive relationships, with particular reference to friendships, family relationships, and relationships with other peers and adults. Relationship education will be compulsory in primary schools by 2020.
Families and people who care for me
That families are important for children growing up because they can give love, security and stability.
The characteristics of healthy family life, commitment to each other, including in times of difficulty, protection and care for children and other family members, the importance of spending time together and sharing each other’s lives.
That others’ families, either in school or in the wider world, sometimes look different from their family, but that they should respect those differences and know that other children’s families are also characterised by love and care.
That stable, caring relationships, which may be of different types, are at the heart of happy families, and are important for children’s security as they grow up.
That marriage represents a formal and legally recognised commitment of two people to each other which is intended to be lifelong.
How to recognise if family relationships are making them feel unhappy or unsafe, and how to seek help or advice from others if needed.
How important friendships are in making us feel happy and secure, and how people choose and make friends.
The characteristics of friendships, including mutual respect, truthfulness, trustworthiness, loyalty, kindness, generosity, trust, sharing interests and experiences and support with problems and difficulties.
That healthy friendships are positive and welcoming towards others, and do not make others feel lonely or excluded.
That most friendships have ups and downs, and that these can often be worked through so that the friendship is repaired or even strengthened, and that resorting to violence is never right.
How to recognise who to trust and who not to trust, how to judge when a friendship is making them feel unhappy or uncomfortable, managing conflict, how to manage these situations and how to seek help or advice from others, if needed.
The importance of respecting others, even when they are very different from them (for example, physically, in character, personality or backgrounds), or make different choices or have different preferences or beliefs.
Practical steps they can take in a range of different contexts to improve or support respectful relationships.
The conventions of courtesy and manners.
The importance of self-respect and how this links to their own happiness.
That in school and in wider society they can expect to be treated with respect by others, and that in turn they should show due respect to others, including those in positions of authority.
About different types of bullying (including cyberbullying), the impact of bullying, responsibilities of bystanders (primarily reporting bullying to an adult) and how to get help.
What a stereotype is, and how stereotypes can be unfair, negative or destructive.
The importance of permission-seeking and giving in relationships with friends, peers and adults.
that people sometimes behave differently online, including by pretending to be someone they are not.
that the same principles apply to online relationships as to face-to-face relationships, including the importance of respect for others online including when we are anonymous.
the rules and principles for keeping safe online, how to recognise risks, harmful content and contact, and how to report them.
how to critically consider their online friendships and sources of information including awareness of the risks associated with people they have never met.
how information and data is shared and used online.
Being safe in relationships
what sorts of boundaries are appropriate in friendships with peers and others (including in a digital context).
about the concept of privacy and the implications of it for both children and adults; including that it is not always right to keep secrets if they relate to being safe.
that each person’s body belongs to them, and the differences between appropriate and inappropriate or unsafe physical, and other, contact.
how to respond safely and appropriately to adults they may encounter (in all contexts, including online) whom they do not know.
how to recognise and report feelings of being unsafe or feeling bad about any adult.
how to ask for advice or help for themselves or others, and to keep trying until they are heard,
how to report concerns or abuse, and the vocabulary and confidence needed to do so.
where to get advice e.g. family, school and/or other sources.
Key facts about puberty and the changing adolescent body, particularly from Age 9 through to age 11, including physical and emotional changes
About menstrual wellbeing including the key facts about the menstrual cycle
Source: PSHE Association Local Support
Cambridgeshire Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) Service
Cambridgeshire Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) Service The Cambridgeshire PSHE Service provides guidance, consultancy, training and resources to support and enhance the health and wellbeing of children and young people and their learning. This includes the curriculum for PSHE and Citizenship: its content, approaches to teaching and learning and monitoring and assessment. We also
Read More About Cambridgeshire Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) Service
The NSPCC provide a variety of group as well as one to one services to schools, many of which are FREE of charge. For information on the programme offers click below: To find out more simply contact the NSPCC Service Centre in Peterborough on 01733 207 620. Prior to making a referral, please contact the
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The Kite Trust
The Kite Trust offers tailored staff training packages for all schools and colleges on LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, questioning plus other related identities) inclusion and combating LGBTphobic bullying (also known as HBT – homophobic, biphobic and transphobic- bullying). We also deliver assemblies and workshops for students across the age ranges and offer support around
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Documents Early Years Foundation Stage
Key Stage 1
Key Stage 2